Wednesday 31 October 2018

Nobel Laureates in Physics: Born in October



Brief information about fourteen scientists who won Nobel Prize in Physics and born in October.





Vitaly Ginzburg
Born: 4 October 1916, Moscow, Russian Empire
Died: 8 November 2009
Nobel Prize in Physics: 2003 
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids."





Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
Born: 6 October 1903, Dungarvan, Ireland
Died: 25 June 1995, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Affiliation at the time of the award: Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
Prize motivation: "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles."
Prize share: 1/2



Riccardo Giacconi
Born: 6 October 1931, Genoa, Italy
Affiliation at the time of the award: Associated Universities Inc., Washington, DC, USA
Prize motivation: "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources."
Prize share: 1/2



Niels Henrik David Bohr
Born: 7 October 1885, Copenhagen, Denmark
Died: 18 November 1962, Copenhagen, Denmark
Affiliation at the time of the award: Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark
Prize motivation: "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them."
Prize share: 1/1




Max von Laue
Born: 9 October 1879, Pfaffendorf, Germany
Died: 23 April 1960, Berlin, West Germany (now Germany)
Affiliation at the time of the award: Frankfurt-on-the-Main University, Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany
Prize motivation: "for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals."
Prize share: 1/1





Raymond Davis Jr.
Born: 14 October 1914, Washington, DC, USA
Died: 31 May 2006, Blue Point, NY, USA
Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Prize motivation: "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos."
Prize share: 1/4







Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
Born: 19 October 1910, Lahore, India (now Pakistan)
Died: 21 August 1995, Chicago, IL, USA
Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Prize motivation: "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars."
Prize share: 1/2




James Chadwick
Born: 20 October 1891, Manchester, United Kingdom
Died: 24 July 1974, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Affiliation at the time of the award: Liverpool University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Prize motivation: "for the discovery of the neutron."
Prize share: 1/1




Wolfgang Ketterle
Born: 21 October 1957, Heidelberg, West Germany (now Germany)
Affiliation at the time of the award: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA
Prize motivation: "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates."
Prize share: 1/3





Clinton Joseph Davisson
Born: 22 October 1881, Bloomington, IL, USA
Died: 1 February 1958, Charlottesville, VA, USA
Affiliation at the time of the award: Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York, NY, USA
Prize motivation: "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals."
Prize share: 1/2



Felix Bloch
Born: 23 October 1905, Zurich, Switzerland
Died: 10 September 1983, Zurich, Switzerland
Affiliation at the time of the award: Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
Prize motivation: "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith."
Prize share: 1/2




Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank
Born: 23 October 1908, Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), Russia
Died: 22 June 1990, Moscow, USSR (now Russia)
Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Moscow, Moscow, USSR, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, USSR
Prize motivation: "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect."
Prize share: 1/3




Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
Born: 24 October 1932, Paris, France
Died: 18 May 2007, Orsay, France
Affiliation at the time of the award: Collège de France, Paris, France
Prize motivation: "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers."
Prize share: 1/1




Theodor W. Hänsch
Born: 30 October 1941, Heidelberg, Germany
Affiliation at the time of the award: Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany , Ludwig-Maximilians- Universität, Munich, Germany
Prize motivation: "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique."
Prize share: 1/4



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